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Table 17 Comparison between Gu (2015) and the present study

From: Can the National Center Test in Japan be replaced by commercially available private English tests of four skills? In the case of TOEFL Junior Comprehensive

  Gu (2015) Present study
 Numbers 436 144
 Ages 11–15 17–19
 Learning environments EFL EFL
 Native countries 15 different countries Japan
Tests formats Pilot Authentic
Analysis levels Item raw scores Total skill scores