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Table 2 Major areas of assessment illiteracy

From: Language assessment in the new English curriculum in Iran: managerial, institutional, and professional barriers

1. The terminology in language testing and assessment
2. How of language assessment Lack of knowledge about how to design and score listening, speaking, and reading skills
Misconceptions about test validity
Confusing the requirements of norm-referenced and criterion-referenced testing
3. Why of language assessment Lack of a clear understanding about the purposes of summative and formative assessment
4. What of language assessment Misconceptions about communicative competence and the role of World Englishes