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Table 8 Results of post hoc analysis using Tamhane test for multiple comparisons among groups in the TOEFL iBT test

From: A quantitative analysis of TOEFL iBT using an interpretive model of test validity

(I) obs.test.score (J) obs.test.score Mean difference (I–J) Sig.
Strongly disagree Disagree − 1.39048 .944
Undecided − 2.97078 .149
Agree − 4.51891* .008
Strongly agree − 6.68214* .000
Disagree Strongly disagree 1.39048 .944
Undecided − 1.58030 .308
Agree − 3.12843* .001
Strongly agree − 5.29167* .000
Decidedun Strongly disagree 2.97078 .149
Disagree 1.58030 .308
Agree − 1.54813 .185
Strongly agree − 3.71136* .001
Agree Strongly disagree 4.51891* .008
Disagree 3.12843* .001
Decidedun 1.54813 .185
Strongly agree − 2.16324 .126
Strongly agree Strongly disagree 6.68214* .000
Disagree 5.29167* .000
Undecided 3.71136* .001
Agree 2.16324 .126
  1. Sig = 0 < α = 0.05
  2. *The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level