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Table 7 Summary of item bias analysis of Qiyas for L1 Arabic language test data by gender

From: Investigating the psychometric properties of the Qiyas for L1 Arabic language test using a Rasch measurement framework

DIF measure DIF contrast Rasch Welch’s t p Item
Male Female
− 0.71 − 1.55 0.85 2.32 0.02 1
0.26 − 0.11 0.38 1.29 0.19 2
0.73 0.2 0.53 1.83 0.06 3
0.63 0.25 0.38 1.31 0.19 4
− 0.04 0.45 − 0.49 − 1.68 0.09 5
− 1.15 − 2.1 0.95 2.24 0.02 6
− 1.7 −  1.65 − 0.05 − 0.12 0.9 7
1.16 0.92 0.25 0.83 0.4 8
− 0.01 0.65 − 0.66 − 2.26 0.02 9
− 0.59 0.04 − 0.63 − 2.09 0.03 10
0.99 1.43 − 0.43 − 1.41 0.16 11
− 0.25 − 0.11 − 0.14 − 0.46 0.64 12
− 1.06 − 0.87 − 0.19 − 0.57 0.57 13
0.86 0.86 0 0 1 14
1.34 1.97 − 0.63 − 1.88 0.06 15
0.13 1.13 − 1 − 3.35 0 16
1.99 1.97 0.02 0.06 0.94 17
− 0.36 0.2 − 0.56 − 1.88 0.06 18
0.14 0.14 0 0 1 19
− 0.63 − 0.56 − 0.07 − 0.23 0.81 20
0.22 0.25 − 0.03 − 0.1 0.91 21
0.89 0.65 0.24 0.81 0.41 22
− 0.08 0.04 − 0.12 − 0.4 0.68 23
0.36 − 0.01 0.37 1.28 0.2 24
1.09 1.31 − 0.21 − 0.69 0.48 25
0.06 − 0.01 0.07 0.25 0.8 26
− 0.22 − 0.44 0.23 0.74 0.45 27
0.13 0.3 − 0.17 − 0.58 0.56 28
0.96 0.86 0.1 0.33 0.74 29
− 0.4 0.15 − 0.54 − 1.83 0.06 30
− 0.15 0.35 − 0.49 − 1.69 0.09 31
1.09 0.71 0.39 1.32 0.18 32
− 0.79 − 1.07 0.28 0.83 0.4 33
− 0.18 − 0.44 0.26 0.86 0.39 34
− 1.09 − 1.09 0 0 1 35
0.33 − 0.33 0.66 2.22 0.02 36
− 1.2 − 1 − 0.2 − 0.58 0.56 37
− 1.52 − 1.07 − 0.45 − 1.24 0.21 38
− 0.39 − 0.39 0 0 1 39
0.36 − 0.11 0.48 1.63 0.1 40
− 0.88 − 0.68 − 0.2 − 0.62 0.53 41
1.16 0.6 0.56 1.91 0.05 42
− 0.44 − 1.07 0.64 1.92 0.05 43
− 0.36 − 0.22 − 0.14 − 0.47 0.64 44
− 0.71 − 0.93 0.22 0.68 0.49 45