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Table 1 Metaphors and purposes of assessment

From: Postgraduate students’ conception of language assessment

Purpose Metaphor Frequency
To guide 1.A life without sun 9
2. A ladder without the steps
3. Life of a free bird but forever a wanderer
4. A road without directions
5. A map without a route
6. A human without brain
7. Vision problem without eyeglasses
8. A life with no meaning
9. A journey with no ends
To motivate 1. Food without salt 6
2. Work with no reward
3. A food without taste
4. Chocolate without taste
5. A job with no salary
6. A world with rest (grin emoticon)
To empower 1. Driving without license 3
2. A world without improvement
3. Adventure without risk
To control 1. Doomsday without hell 3
2. A state ruled with no iron fist
3. A lion with no cuspid