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Table 2 The number of removed items throughout the validation process

From: Toward measuring language teachers’ assessment knowledge: development and validation of Language Assessment Knowledge Scale (LAKS)

  Reading Listening Writing Speaking In total
1st stage (three experts with PhD in ELT checking for comprehensibility) 49 61 74 53 237
− 3 − 2 − 6 − 6 − 17
2nd stage (Checking with 10 teachers) 46 59 68 47 220
3rd stage (Checking with academicians) 46 59 68 47 220
− 9 − 26 − 20 − 12 − 67
4th stage (Training with testing office members) 37 33 48 35 153
− 9 − 7 − 14 − 11 − 41
5th stage (Piloting with 50 teachers and expert opinion) 28 26 34 24 112
− 13 − 11 − 19 − 9 − 52
The final version 15 15 15 15 60