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Table 1 Description of participants (n = 90)

From: Test format effects: a componential approach to second language reading

  Mean SD Range
Age 20 2.81 19–31
Onset of learning (year) 9.7 2.60 3–16
Age of arrival (year) 20.44 3.23 16–30
Length of residence (year) 1.25 1.30 0.08–5
Number of test-taking experiences (TOEFL) 2.76 1.39 1–8