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Table 2 Key differences between oral and written corrective feedback (Adapted from Pawlak, 2014)

From: Assessing the effect of focused direct and focused indirect written corrective feedback on explicit and implicit knowledge of language learners

Oral corrective feedback Written corrective feedback
Corrective force may not always be clear Corrective force is usually clear
The feedback is publically available Feedback only on one’s own errors
The feedback is provided online and offline (i.e., immediate and delayed) The feedback is provided only offline (i.e., it is delayed)
Relatively straightforward focus (i.e., target language form) Considerable complexity of focus (i.e., many aspects of second language writing)
Both input-providing (e.g. recast) or output-inducing (e.g. clarification request) corrective techniques are available Both input-providing (direct correction) or output-inducing (indirect correction) corrective techniques are available
The feedback can be explicit (overt) as well as implicit (covert) The feedback can only be explicit (overt) as the intervention is evident
The correction can be conducted by the teacher, the learner who erred, or a peer The correction can be conducted by the teacher, the learner who erred, or a peer
Metalinguistic information possible Metalinguistic information possible
Conversational or didactic Mostly didactic
Possible direct impact on implicit, procedural knowledge Only explicit, declarative knowledge affected in the main