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Table 3 Design features of explicit and implicit tests (Adapted from Ellis, 2005a, 2005b)

From: Assessing the effect of focused direct and focused indirect written corrective feedback on explicit and implicit knowledge of language learners

Criterion Imitation Oral narrative Timed grammaticality judgment test Untimed grammaticality judgment test Metalanguage
Degree of awareness Feel Feel Feel Rule Rule
Time available Pressured Pressured Pressured Unpressured Unpressured
Focus of attention Meaning Meaning Form Form Form
Metalinguistic knowledge No No No Yes Yes