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Table 2 Principal component analysis for the 21-item questionnaire survey (n = 902)

From: An exploration of students’ voices on the English graduation benchmark policy across Northern, Central and Southern Vietnam

Factor 1 ‘Benefits’ (9 items)  
 - The policy generates my English learning motivation 0.702
 - The policy helps me improve my English proficiency 0.681
 - The policy enhances my competitiveness in future workplace. 0.672
 - The policy makes me clearer on learning objectives. 0.654
 - The policy makes me my learning process enjoyable for me. 0.643
 - The policy directs my learning. 0.628
 - The policy enhances my competitiveness in future education. 0.603
 - The policy copes with the alarming issues in English standards in Vietnam. 0.593
 - I would still be motivated to learn English even if there were no graduation requirement
α = 0.838
Initial eigenvalues (% of variance 27.218, cumulative % 27.218)  
Factor 2 ‘Anxiety’ (8 items)  
 - The policy places me under pressure on learning English. 0.762
 - The policy makes me feel more anxious about learning English. 0.696
 - The policy makes me feel that I have failed in my efforts to learn English. 0.689
 - The policy makes me more frustrated with learning English. 0.654
 - The policy makes me feel afraid of learning English. 0.645
 - I worry I might be held back in university/college because I would not satisfy the requirement. 0.638
 - Passing the English language proficiency tests to satisfy the requirement is major driving force in learning English. 0.620
 - Failing to satisfy the policy exerts great negative impacts on my future.
α = 0.820
Initial eigenvalues (% of variance 16.812, cumulative % 44.030)  
Factor 3 ‘Test-oriented learning’ (4 items)  
 - The policy makes my English more test-oriented rather than encouraging communicative competence. 0.930
 - I spend more time inside and outside class improving test taking strategies. 0.905
 - I only pay attention on the content related to the English language proficiency tests 0.887
 - I prefer doing test-oriented practice in four skills inside and outside class
α = 0.957
Initial eigenvalues (% of variance 8.850, cumulative % 52.880)