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Table 2 Items used to determine washback

From: Standardized proficiency tests in a campus-wide English curriculum: a washback study

ItemsMStd. Dev.VNIaNIaFPIaVPIaCorrected item-total correlation
1. My performance on standardized tests affects my personal image.3.450.9826 (4%)63 (9%)282 (41%)220 (32%)103 (15%).62
2. My performance on standardized tests affects my learning motivation.3.350.9937 (5%)61 (9%)310 (45%)197 (28%)89 (13%).58
3. My performance on standardized tests affects my relationship with teachers.2.851.0282 (12%)123 (18%)350 (50%)92 (13%)47 (7%).65
4. My performance on standardized tests affects my relationship with my peers.2.801.06101 (15%)122 (18%)328 (47%)98 (14%)45 (6%).64
5. My performance on standardized tests affects my emotion.3.201.0249 (7%)79 (11%)322 (46%)169 (24%)75 (11%).73
6. My performance on standardized tests affects my future job opportunities.3.501.0434 (5%)47 (7%)294 (42%)178 (26%)141 (20%).69
7. Participating in mock proficiency tests helps me improve my English ability.3.320.9740 (6%)62 (9%)302 (44%)218 (31%)72 (10%).63
8. Tests push me to study harder.3.501.0135 (5%)46 (7%)266 (38%)231 (33%)116 (17%).64
9. I perform better on tests than on regular learning.3.090.9136 (5%)97 (14%)380 (55%)129 (19%)52 (7%).64
  1. aVNI very negative influence, NI negative influence, F fair, PI positive influence, VPI very positive influence. N = 694