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Table 3 The t test for independent samples comparing the mean difference in the strength of washback experienced between high-proficiency and low-proficiency students

From: Standardized proficiency tests in a campus-wide English curriculum: a washback study

GroupNMSDSkewnessKurtosis
High proficiency17329.975.730.051.21
Low proficiency17328.006.57− 0.130.93
Independent comparisons
 ComparisonMSEt(344)Sig.
 Washback− 1.97.66− 2.970.003**
  1. **p < .01