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Table 11 Factors influencing students’ English learning approaches

From: When testing stakes are no longer high: impact on the Chinese College English learners and their learning

  Estimate Std. error Wald df Sig. 95% confidence interval
Lower bound Upper bound
Threshold Q5 = 1 − 2.344 .501 21.869 1 .000 − 3.326 − 1.361
Q5 = 2 − .644 .479 1.809 1 .179 − 1.582 .294
Q5 = 3 .667 .479 1.941 1 .164 − .271 1.605
Q5 = 4 2.313 .489 22.382 1 .000 1.355 3.271
Location Gender = 0 − .020 .166 .014 1 .905 − .345 .306
Gender = 1 0a . . 0 . . .
Major = 1 − .086 .369 .054 1 .816 − .810 .637
Major = 2 .140 .366 .147 1 .702 − .578 .859
Major = 3 0a . . 0 . . .
Year = 1 − .107 .160 .441 1 .507 − .421 .208
Year = 2 0a . . 0 . . .
Eng pro = 1 1.792 1.338 1.795 1 .180 − .830 4.414
Eng pro = 2 .757 .545 1.930 1 .165 − .311 1.824
Eng pro = 3 .656 .332 3.913 1 .048 .006 1.306
Eng pro = 4 .315 .345 .835 1 .361 − .360 .990
Eng pro = 5 0a . . 0 . . .
  1. Note: Eng pro English proficiency. Link function, Logit
  2. aThis parameter is set to zero because it is redundant