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Table 1 The unstandardised, standardised effects and correlation estimates of hypothesised relationships

From: The relationship of test takers’ learning motivation, attitudes towards the actual test use and test performance of the College English Test in China

DR UnSt TE SE C.R. St TE St DE
 AttiTuse→TS 37.953 9.241 4.107 0.274 0.274
 TRMoti→TS − 29.478 4.940 − 5.968 − 0.353 − 0.353
IR CE SE C.R. r  
 TUMoti↔TRMoti − 0.215 0.034 − 6.399 − 0.676  
 TUMoti↔AttiTuse 0.027 0.012 2.161 0.141  
DC SMC or R2 aCohen’s f2 (f2 = R2/1 − R2)
 TS 0.200 0.250
  1. DR dependence relationships, UnSt TE unstandardised total effects, SE standard error, C.R. critical ration, St TE standardised total effects, St DE standardised direct effects, IR interrelationship, CE covariance estimate, r correlation estimate, DC dependence constructs, SMC squared multiple correlations, TUMoti test-unrelated motivation, TRMoti test-related motivation, AttiTuse attitudes towards actual test use of the CET, TS test score (test performance)
  2. af2 = 0.02 as small effect size; f2 = 0.15 as medium effect size; f2 = 0.35 as large effect size