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Table 6 Pre-test, post-test, and ANCOVA results for the experimental and control groups

From: Integrating diagnostic assessment into curriculum: a theoretical framework and teaching practices

Attribute Group No. Pre-test Post-test ANCOVA
Mean SD Mean SD F p Cohen’s d
A1 EG 34 10.59 10.13 14.65 10.77 4.80** 0.033 0.63
CG 20 12.00 9.73 9.6 8.35    
A2 EG 34 17.79 4.17 18.06 4.74 4.58** 0.037 0.59
CG 20 16.65 6.90 14.80 5.53    
A3 EG 10 22.56 7.50 26.11 6.01 4.32** 0.049 0.87
CG 16 17.59 7.53 14.23 8.66    
A4 EG 34 22.58 7.68 23.00 7.00 0.78 0.383 0.29
CG 20 19.45 9.89 19.80 10.85    
A5 EG 30 20.36 5.65 22.83 6.59 0.88 0.352 0.29
CG 17 17.00 8.25 20.18 7.66    
Total score EG 34 220.21 29.67 233.26 39.67 1.66 0.203 0.35
CG 20 200.30 42.67 207.05 47.98    
  1. A1, analyzing logical relationships between ideas (e.g., causation, transition, progression); A2, summarizing the main idea of the text; A3, making inferences about the author’s feelings and attitudes; A4, differentiating facts and opinions/comparing the opinions and attitudes of different authors; A5, locating the target information by skimming, scanning, or browsing; EG, experimental group; CG, control group
  2. **p< .05