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Table 4 The results of construct validity

From: A moderated mediation analysis of the relationship between a high-stakes English test and test takers’ extracurricular English learning activities

Construct Indicator Test of significance Factor loading
(Std.)
Item reliability
(SMC)
Composite reliability Convergent validity
(AVE)
Unstd. SE t value p
TPN TPN_1 1.000     .808 .653 .936 .677
TPN_2 .894 .054 16.545 *** .699 .489   
TPN_3 .937 .043 21.965 *** .852 .726   
TPN_4 1.056 .047 22.595 *** .876 .767   
TPN_5 1.048 .045 23.079 *** .888 .789   
TPN_6 .948 .044 21.313 *** .842 .709   
TPN_7 .947 .050 19.075 *** .778 .605   
TEELA TEELA_1 1.000     .837 .701 .948 .751
TEELA_2 .848 .044 19.092 *** .751 .564   
TEELA_3 1.184 .047 25.409 *** .896 .803   
TEELA_4 1.213 .048 25.522 *** .899 .808   
TEELA_5 1.204 .047 25.502 *** .898 .806   
TEELA_6 1.263 .048 26.089 *** .909 .826   
PSE-AA AA_1 1.000     .870 .757 .963 .811
AA_2 1.000 .035 28.896 *** .910 .828   
AA_3 .994 .032 31.403 *** .943 .889   
AA_4 1.007 .035 28.922 *** .911 .830   
AA_5 .971 .036 27.230 *** .886 .785   
AA_6 .980 .036 26.945 *** .881 .776   
PSE-SRL SRL_2 1.000     .731 .534 .947 .718
SRL _3 1.028 .052 19.934 *** .901 .812   
SRL _4 .963 .052 18.368 *** .836 .699   
SRL _5 1.084 .055 19.723 *** .892 .796   
SRL _6 1.080 .055 19.691 *** .891 .794   
SRL _9 1.041 .054 19.226 *** .871 .759   
SRL _10 1.113 .064 17.383 *** .794 .630   
  1. Note: N = 463. TPN, test takers’ perceptions of the NMET; TEELA, test takers’ extracurricular English learning activities; PSE-AA, perceived self-efficacy for academic achievement; PSE-SRL, perceived self-efficacy for self-regulated learning. AVE, average variance extracted; SMC, squared multiple correlations; Std., standardized; Unstd., unstandardized; SE, standard error.
  2. ***p < .001.