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Table 6 Direct, indirect, and total effects of the hypothesized model

From: A moderated mediation analysis of the relationship between a high-stakes English test and test takers’ extracurricular English learning activities

Path Point estimate
(Std.)
Point estimate
(Unstd.)
SE Z Bootstrapping with 95% confidence Two-tailed significance
Bias-corrected Percentile
Lower Upper Lower Upper
Specific indirect effect
 SIE 1 .122 .151 .058 2.603 .039 .268 .041 .269 **
 SIE 2 .050 .062 .031 2.000 .006 .130 .005 .127 *
 SIE 3 .204 .252 .048 5.250 .169 .358 .169 .356 ***
Total indirect effect
 TPN→TEELA .376 .464 .062 7.484 .353 .592 .355 .596 ***
Direct effect
 TPN→TEELA .145 .179 .064 2.797 .057 .311 .051 .303 **
Total effect
 TPN→TEELA .521 .644 .060 10.733 .537 .769 .533 .765 ***
  1. Note. 5000 bootstrap samples. N = 463. Std., standardized; Unstd., unstandardized; TPN, test takers’ perceptions of the NMET; TEELA, test-takers’ extracurricular English learning activities; SIE 1, TPN→PSE-SRL→TEELA; SIE 2, TPN→PSE-AA→TEELA; SIE 3, TPN→PSE-SRL→PSE-AA→TEELA
  2. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001