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Table 10 Effect size by instrument

From: A meta-analysis on educational technology in English language teaching

Type of instrument Model N Effect size Std. deviation Sig Result
Questionnaire Fixed effects 37 2.03 1.321 0.037 Significant
Random effects 1.21 1.782 0.031 Significant
Interview Fixed effects 3 0.784 1.682 0.028 Significant
Random effects 0.726 0.946 0.011 Significant
Observations Fixed effects 2 4.53 0.645 0.000 Significant
Random effects 6.35 0.896 0.000 Significant
Interview, observation Fixed effects 2 0.13 0.904 0.003 Significant
Random effects 0.31 0.776 0.002 Significant
Observation, questionnaire Fixed effects 2 2.46 0.754 0.010 Significant
Random Effects 3.84 1.143 0.019 Significant
Questionnaire, tests Fixed effects 14 1.15 1.68 0.000 Significant
Random effects 1.81 1.03 0.000 Significant