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Table 2 PCA outputs for secondary EFL teachers’ dataset

From: A study of EFL teachers’ classroom grading practices in secondary schools and private institutes: a mixed methods approach

Grading item Factor loading
1 2 3 4
Factor 1: Academic enablers     
 Student effort-how much the student tried to learn .85 .09 .22 .09
 Improvement of performance .82 .07 .20 .16
 Class participation .80 .30 .06 .18
 Ability levels of the students .78 .19 .20 −.19
 Effort, improvement, behavior and other non-test factors for borderline cases .71 −.03 −.01 .33
 Academic performance as opposed to other factors .60 .54 .04 −.17
 Specific learning objectives mastered .59 .41 −.25 .25
 Work habits and neatness .48 .27 .34 .30
Factor 2: External benchmarks and homework     
 Performance compared to students from previous years .08 .77 .30 .19
 Performance compared to other students .28 .73 .15 −.22
 Performance compared to a set scale .41 .67 −.13 .24
 Grade distributions of other teachers −.09 .61 .29 .15
 School or district policy for grading .132 .58 .48 .17
 Completion of ungraded homework .35 .55 .30 .26
 Quality of graded homework .52 .53 .10 .32
Factor 3: Classroom-management grading     
 Disruptive student behavior .15 .17 .78 −.10
 Inclusion of zeros for incomplete assignment .16 .13 .74 .07
 Extra credit for nonacademic performance −.01 .29 .61 .47
 Extra credit for academic performance .60 .19 .07 .74
Eigenvalue 7.82 2.34 1.38 1.08
Percent of variance accounted for 41.07 12.31 7.24 5.67
Alpha reliability coefficient .90 .83 .71 na
  1. Note. N = 187. Factor loadings above .40 are in bold. Rotation converged in 8 iterations