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Table 4 PCA outputs for private EFL institute teachers’ dataset

From: A study of EFL teachers’ classroom grading practices in secondary schools and private institutes: a mixed methods approach

Grading item Factor loading
1 2 3 4
Factor 1: Academic enablers
 Student effort—how much the student tried to learn .83 .01 .16 .20
 Improvement of performance .82 .05 .13 −.01
 Ability levels of the students .79 .27 .01 .01
 Specific learning objectives mastered .75 .21 −.03 .14
 Class participation .70 .36 −.11 .15
 Quality of graded homework .67 .31 .10 .30
 Effort, improvement, behavior, and other non-test factors for borderline cases .65 .06 −.05 .37
 Completion of ungraded homework .48 .15 .28 .16
Factor 2: External benchmarks
 Performance compared to a set scale .31 .79 −.06 .02
 Performance compared to students from previous years .03 .72 .49 −.05
 Performance compared to other students .38 .62 .29 .13
 Work habits and neatness .33 .56 .02 .49
Factor 3: Classroom-management grading
 Extra credit for nonacademic performance −.06 .03 .67 .07
 Disruptive student behavior −.01 .10 .65 −.04
 Grade distributions of other teachers .06 .46 .61 .32
 School or district policy for grading .18 .24 .58 −.39
 Inclusion of zeros for incomplete assignment .36 −.29 .56 .09
Factor 4: Academic performance
 Extra credit for academic performance .30 −.01 .07 .80
 Academic performance as opposed to other factors .38 .42 .01 .56
Eigenvalue 6.82 2.36 1.49 1.14
Percent of variance accounted for 35.92 12.42 7.86 5.98
Alpha reliability coefficient .90 .80 .68 .61
  1. Note. N = 113. Factor loadings above .40 are in bold. Rotation converged in 8 iterations