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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for the VELC Test® used as a placement test (N = 4407)

From: Validity argument for the VELC Test® score interpretations and uses

Section k M SD Min Max Skewness Kurtosis α SEM
1. Vocabulary listening 20 13.37 3.23 0 20 -.44 .08 .70 1.77
2. Word identifying listening 20 9.87 3.72 0 20 .26 -.71 .74 1.90
3. Listening comprehension 20 10.27 3.16 0 20 .15 -.07 .59 2.07
4. Vocabulary 20 15.19 3.49 1 20 −1.12 .87 .81 1.52
5. Grammar structure 20 14.03 3.77 0 20 -.58 -.24 .78 1.77
6. Reading comprehension 20 11.51 4.06 0 20 -.16 -.68 .78 1.90
Total 120 72.24 17.00 22 120 -.35 -.25 .93 4.50