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Table 3 Suggested Communicative Activities and Classroom Practices for the 2003–2012 and 2013–Present Courses of Study

From: Application of diffusion of innovation theory to educational accountability: the case of EFL education in Japan

Suggested Communicative Activities % of teachers who (often or sometimes) conducted the suggested activities (n = 887): 2005 Survey % of teachers who (often or sometimes) conducted the suggested activities (n = 2,493): 2014 Survey
A. Listening for understanding the given information and the speaker’s intention or grasping the main points 38.2 65.1
B. Reading for understanding the given information and the speaker’s intention or grasping the main points 51.2 89.2
C. Discussing and exchanging one’s ideas or the information gained through listening and reading 16.7 33.0
D. Writing by sorting one’s ideas or the information gained through listening and reading 18.8 39.7