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Table 4 Individual metacognitive strategies used and usage patterns

From: Behind a spoken performance: test takers’ strategic reactions in a simulated part 3 of the IELTS speaking test

  Stimulated recall Usage patterns
1. Assessing the situation Why it’s important to go to meetings? I paused. I get a little lost…do not think seriously about this topic and never encounter reasons… (Gwen)
Your [examiner] response is important to me – you smile or nod to me I think may be this answer is right. (Dolly)
- Applied when making judgements while or after listening to input question(s)
- Judgments about question difficulty, familiarity with topic, examiner’s purpose for asking a question
- Judgments about examiner’s reaction/response while speaking
2. Attending Different pictures came to mind. I chose education and medicine…(Andy) - Used when deciding from several word- or content-related choices;
- Occurs after analyzing input or assessing the question
3. Evaluating I was thinking I did not say everything there was. (Alfred) - Used when judging own: language production, response quality, thought processes and strategies used;
- Often followed by planning
4. Monitoring I thought meetings and interviews are different. Should I or not talk about my interview? So I stopped talking about it. (Gina) - Applied when a doubt or a problem is identified while speaking that leads to an immediate action
5. Planning The next point in my mind is ok I have to give an example to prove my point. (Harry) - Used after examining input question or identifying a content-related problem while speaking
6. Self-correcting ‘Occurred to me’…but I was saying ‘occurred to mind’, Oh it’s bad grammar. So I changed.(Faye) - Used upon realizing a grammatical error
- Corrections made immediately in mid-sentence with no pauses or hesitations but not always correct