Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 7 Initial 9-point rating scales

From: Post hoc evaluation of analytic rating scales for improved functioning in the assessment of interactive L2 speaking ability

Score Fluency Accuracy Complexity Interaction Communicative effectiveness
9 Speaks fairly fluently with only occasional hesitation, false starts, and modification of attempted utterance. Speech is only slightly slower than that of a native speaker. Errors are not unusual, but rarely major. Attempts a variety of verb forms (e.g., passives, modals, tense, and aspect) even if the use is not always correct. Takes risks grammatically in the service of expressing meaning. Regularly attempts the use of coordination and subordination to convey ideas that cannot be expressed in a single clause, even if the result is awkward or incorrect. Confidently initiates and pursues interaction with others. Responds appropriately and naturally to others with adequate detail. Attempts clarification. Near-native flexibility and range.
8      
7 Speaks more slowly than a native speaker due to hesitations and word-finding delays. Manages most common forms, with occasional errors, major errors present but not predominant. Mostly relies on simple verb forms, with some attempt to use a greater variety of forms (e.g., passives, modals, more varied tense and aspect). Some attempt to use coordination and subordination to convey ideas that cannot be expressed in a single clause. Initiates and pursues interaction with others. Responds appropriately to others, though not always naturally or with much detail.  
6      
5 Speaks with a marked degree of hesitation due to word-finding delays or inability to phrase utterances easily. Demonstrates limited linguistic control: major errors frequent. Produces numerous sentence fragments in a predictable set of simple clause structures. If coordination and/or subordination are attempted to express more complex clause relations, this is hesitant and done with difficulty. Attempts to initiate and pursue interaction with others, even if unsuccessful at times. Responds to others but often with unnatural pauses and without much detail.  
4      
3 Speech is quite disfluent due to frequent and lengthy hesitations or false starts. Exhibits a clear lack of linguistic control even of basic forms. Produces mostly sentence fragments and simple phrases. Little attempt to use any grammatical means to connect ideas across clauses. Does not initiate or attempt to pursue interaction with others. Provides only minimal responses when prompted.  
2      
1 Speech is so halting and fragmentary that conversation is impossible. No linguistic control even of the most basic forms. No awareness of basic grammatical means. Makes no attempt to interact with others. Limited flexibility and range.
  1. The between-score categories indicate ratings that fall somewhere between the two adjacent rating categories following Nitta and Nakatsuhara (2014). The Fluency, Accuracy, and Complexity scales were modified from Nitta and Nakatsuhara (2014) and Iwashita et al. (2001). The Interaction scale was adapted from Ockey et al. (2013). The Communicative Effectiveness scale followed that used by McNamara (1990)