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Table 8 Moderated mediation analysis: indirect and direct effect comparison among the three grades

From: A moderated mediation analysis of the relationship between a high-stakes English test and test takers’ extracurricular English learning activities

Grade Estimate Bootstrapping with 95% confidence
Bias-corrected Percentile
Lower Upper p value Lower Upper p value
Total indirect effect comparison
 G1–G2 − .019 − .355 .256 .861 − .341 .264 .926
 G1–G3 − .154 − .580 .118 .262 − .536 .145 .350
 G3–G2 .135 − .210 .579 .412 − .234 .539 .473
SIE 1 comparison
 G1–G2 − .084 − .399 .195 .583 − .414 .183 .529
 G1–G3 .307* − .706 − .046 .022 − .658 .017 .036
 G3–G2 .223 − .052 .622 .100 − .107 .540 .174
SIE 2 comparison
 G1–G2 − .081 − .271 .056 .250 − .268 .059 .272
 G1–G3 − .090 − .286 .042 .194 − .268 .054 .248
 G3–G2 .008 − .191 .212 .909 − .199 .209 .951
SIE 3 comparison
 G1–G2 .147 − .112 .379 .268 − .077 .407 .182
 G1–G3 .242* .018 .482 .038 .003 .471 .047
 G3–G2 − .096 − .341 .119 .304 − .303 .156 .462
Direct effect comparison
 G1–G2 − .005 − .302 .325 .965 − .303 .321 .976
 G1–G3 − .005 − .291 .313 .959 − .297 .307 .985
 G3–G2 .000 − .327 .324 .996 − .326 .325 .998
  1. Note: 5000 bootstrap samples. N = 463. SIE 1, TPN→PSE-SRL→TEELA; SIE 2, TPN→PSE-AA→TEELA; SIE 3, TPN→PSE-SRL→PSE-AA→TEELA
  2. *p < .05