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Table 8 Effect size by year of publication

From: A meta-analysis on educational technology in English language teaching

Year Model N Effect size SD Sig Result
2009–2011 Fixed effects 4 1.056 0.956 0.001 Significant
Random effects 1.861 0.97 0.03 Significant
2012–2014 Fixed effects 21 0.169 1.015 0.000 Significant
Random effects 0.311 0.746 0.000 Significant
2015–2017 Fixed effects 31 1.18 0.717 0.000 Significant
Random effects 1.51 0.848 0.000 Significant
2018–2020 Fixed effects 4 1.33 0.905 0.002 Significant
Random effects 0.45 0.818 0.002 Significant